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Thread: Hungarian Air Force

  1. #1
    Senior Member gekho's Avatar
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    Hungarian Air Force

    Following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918, a small air arm was established operating surviving aircraft from Hungarian factories and training schools. This air arm became the Hungarian Red Air Force under the short lived Hungarian Soviet Republic, but was disbanded upon its downfall. Under the Treaty of Trianon (1920), Hungary was forbidden from owning military aircraft. However, a secret air arm was gradually established under the cover of civilian flying clubs. During 1938, the existence of the Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierő (MKHL; the Royal Hungarian Air Force), was made known. The air arm was reorganized and expanded. On January 1, 1939, it became independent of the army.

    It subsequently participated in clashes with the newly established Slovak Republic and in the border confrontation with Romania. In April 1941, operations were conducted in support of the German invasion of Yugoslavia and, on June 27, 1941, Hungary declared war on the Soviet Union. On March 1, 1942, the air force was returned to army control. In the summer of 1942 an air brigade was attached to the Luftwaffe's VIII. Fliegerkorps on the Eastern Front. Beginning March 1944, Allied bomber raids began on Hungary and progressively increased in intensity. Late in 1944 all efforts were redirected towards countering the advancing Soviet Army, but to no avail. All fighting in Hungary ended on April 16, 1945.



    A small air arm was organised along Soviet lines during 1947. Following the communist takeover, Russian military aid was stepped-up and a major expansion program initiated. When Soviet forces invaded in November 1956 to suppress the national uprising, sections of the Hungarian Air Force attacked Soviet forces and resisted Russian attempts to occupy their bases. The resistance was short-lived and the air force was demobilized soon after. A reconstituted air arm was reformed in the following year, but initially only as an internal security force. Gradually, the air force was expanded again, but it remained an integral part of the army and was essentially a defensive force. The soviets had MIG 29s based at Tokol until 1991 to defend Hungarian airspace.

    In mid 1993 three batches of the MIG 29s were delivered from Russia. They were based at Kecskemet. In 1994 a German gift of 20 MIL 24D/V's and 20 L-39's were donated. In 1997 Hungary undertook its first flying training course since 1956. The cost of the course was too high and was halted after the completion of only one course. Also in 1997 the MIG 23s and SU 22s were withdrawn from service. During the 1990s all combat aircraft were fitted with new Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems to enable operations in western airspace. In April 2002, Hungary joined the NATO Flying Training in Canada (NFTC) pilot training program.

  2. #2
    Senior Member gekho's Avatar
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    Fiat Cr.32

    Following the signing of the Rome Protocol with Italy in 1935, the Magyar Légügyi Hivatal (Hungarian Aviation Department) ordered 26 Fiat CR.32s and 26 more the following year. The 52 aircraft arrived in Hungary between 23 April and 2 December 1936. The CR.32s were armed with two Hungarian made 7.92mm M. GKH type Gebauer machine guns. The fighters were assigned to I. Metrological Group, which was moved from Szombathely to Székesfehervar during 1936.

    In 1938 the Hungarians received 36 ex-Austrian CR.32s from Germany. On 22 August 1938 an agreement was signed in Bled, Yugoslavia by Hungary and the ‘Little Entente’ states – Czechoslovakia, Rumania and Yugoslavia. This agreement recognized Hungary’s right to rearm itself in exchange for Hungary’s promise not to forcibly reclaim territory lost under the 1920 Peace Treaty of Trianon. The now legal Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierö (Royal Hungarian Air Force) first went on alert during the Munich Crisis in October 1938. On 25 October 1938 Föhadnagy László Pongrácz downed a Czech S-328 from 10 Squadron over Hodzovo.

    On 23 March 1939 – following Germany’s seizure of Bohemia and Moravia – Hungary reoccupied the easternmost Slovak province of Upper Hungary (Ruthenia). Slovak aircraft attacked the advancing Hungarian troops that day, prompting the Hungarian Air Force into action the next day. During 24 March CR.32s of 1/1. and 1/2. vadászszázad engaged Slovak Avia B-534s twice over Ruthenia and Hungary. Hungarian Ju86K-2 bombers attacked Spisska Nova Ves’ airport. The bombers were escorted by CR.32s from the 1/2. vadászszázad. On the morning of 24 March 1939 föhadnagy (Lieutenant) Aladár Negró’s 2. Section of the 1/1. vadászszázad was patrolling the area over Szobránc. The section consisted of him, örmester (Sergeant) Sandor Szojak and örmester Árpád Kertész. At 07:40 three Slovakian Avia B-534s from 49th letka suddenly appeared. In the ensuing brief aerial combat Negró shot down porucík (Lieutenant) Ján Prhácek (commanding officer of the 49th letka) west of Sobrance. Prhácek was killed when his fighter crashed. Szojak shot down desiatnik (Corporal) C. Martis, who survived, near Lúcky. Kertész claimed a third fighter, flown by LAC Michal Karas, damaged in the area of Vysne Remety in East Slovakia. In fact Karas landed at his base without any damage to his Avia.

    At 15:00 the 1/1. vadászszázad scrambled. They formed in three Vs in the air; föhadnagy Béla Csekme leading with hadnagy (2nd Lieutenant) V. Gemeinhardt and örmester M. Tarr as wingmen. Negró’s trio flew on the starboard side and on the port side flew föhadnagy László Palkó’s 3. Section, with wingmen Antal Békássy and hadnagy Mátyás Pirity. The CR.32s reached the cloud-base at about 6200 feet and then flew into fog. Soon there was a hole in the clouds and at the same moment Palkó and Pirity noticed three Avia B-534s and three Letov Š.328s on the port side. The 1. Section did not appear to notice the enemy and they flew on and were soon swallowed by the fog. The Avias, which were from 45th letka, jumped Negró’s 2. Section but opened fire too soon, outside the range of their machine-guns. Negró, turned the table and shot down one Avia flown by rotmajster Ján Hergott southeast of Bánovce nad Ondavou. A second Avia, flown by František Hanovec, was shot down by Szojak near Senné. The Letovs, which were from 12th letka on their way to bomb Hungarian troops at Sobrance, were deserted by their escort and offered a tempting target. They were 300 feet higher thus, in order to gain speed and altitude, Palkó threw his machine into a short dive and then climbed behind the Letovs. He dipped the nose of his CR.32 and sent a burst into the belly of the nearest one. The aircraft caught fire and crashed north of Pavlovce nad Uhom. The pilot slobodník Gustáv Pažický and the observer porucík Ferdinand Švento were both killed. A second Letov was claimed shot down by Pirity. This was a Letov flown by slobodník Jozef Drlicka and his observer podporucík L. Šronk and they made an emergency landing near Strazske.

    Three more Avias were discovered and Palkó’s wingmen were now locked in combat with the enemy fighter. Békássy pursued one over the border and emptied a total of a thousand rounds from both machine guns into it before shooting it down. This aircraft was flown by desiatnik Martin Danihel from 45th letka and he made an emergency landing near Brezovice nad Torysa. After having expending all his ammunition Békássy returned to Hungary. Looking around Pirity saw streams of tracers scorching the sky then noticed an Avia some 1500 feet below. Pirity dived on it but he had to pull out because another CR.32 crossed his path with guns blazing. The sky was now empty, Palkó, staying in the area for a minute or two, sighted Negró’s machine. One by one the other Fiats joined them. Békássy and Szojak had already landed at Ungvar. The Hungarian pilots totally claimed five Avias and two Letovs in the air combat over Paloc. Negró, Békássy, Szojak, Béla Csekme (not confirmed) and Kertész (one not confirmed over Michalovce) reported the destruction of the Avias, while Palkó and Pirity claimed the Letovs. Gemeinhardt and Tarr had no chance to fire their guns in anger. The Slovakian forces lost three Avia B-534s and two Letovs. Slovakian pilots Hanovec and Danihel both claimed one Fiat but this was not confirmed with the Hungarians. Porucík Ferdinand Švento, the observer of one of the Letovs, baled out and was wounded in the stomach while descending in his parachute. He fell near a group of Hungarian hussars. Upon impact he forced himself to sit up and reached inside his flying gear. The move was misunderstood and Švento was mortally shot. The hussars found his identification papers in his hand instead of a pistol. Švento was buried with full military honours. The conflict ended with the signing of a ‘Border Treaty’ by Hungary and Slovakia on 28 March 1939.

    By the end of 1939, 1/3. vadászszázad relinquished its CR.32s and was redesigned 2/2. vadászszázad, while 1/1. vadászszázad was renamed ‘Dongó’ (Bumble Bee). Hungary allowed German forces to attack Yugoslavia from Hungarian territory on 6 April 1941. One week later, Hungarian troops advanced into northern Yugoslavia. CR.32s from 1/1. vadászszázad and 1/2. vadászszázad assisted other Air Force units in supporting friendly forces during this brief campaign. Two CR.32s were lost and another aircraft was damaged in the fighting before Yugoslavia forces facing Hungary surrendered on 13 April. On 22 June 1941 – the day Germany invaded the Soviet Union – 1/1. vadászszázad was based at Ungvár (now Ushgorod , Ukraine) and 1/2. vadászszázad was located at Felsöábrány. These units were responsible for defending the industrial cities of Miskolc and Diósgyör. At 12:58 on 26 June, three unknown twin-engine aircraft bombed the northern Hungarian city of Kassa (now Kosice, Slovakia). All available CR.32s were scrambled to intercept, however, the bombers escaped without loss. Hungary’s War Cabinet identified the attacking aircraft as Soviet, and declared war on the Soviet Union that day. On 4 July, 23 Fiat CR.32s of the 1/1. vadászosztály moved to Miskolc. Soon after this the obsolete Fiat CR.32s were relegated to fighter training duties.

    Sources: http://surfcity.kund.dalnet.se/cr32_hungary.htm
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails cr32x96.jpg   cr32_1.jpg  

    C32sqdaf.jpg   Fiat_CR-32-b.jpg  


  3. #3
    Senior Member gekho's Avatar
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    Caproni Ca-135

    In the 1938 Imperial Japanese Army Air Force evaluation, the Ca.135 P.XI had lost to the Fiat BR.20, but the Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierő (MKHL; the Royal Hungarian Air Force), Hungarian Air Force, nonetheless ordered it. It is likely that these Hungarian Ca.135s had Manfred Weiss WM K-14 engines in place of the Piaggio P.XIs, since Hungary used these engines in its versions of the Reggiane Re.2000 and the Heinkel He 70. Both the Piaggio P.XI and the Manfred Weiss WM K-14 were licensed versions of the French Gnome-Rhône 14K Mistral Major. The Hungarians operated up to 100 Ca.135s with some success against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front in 1941 and 1942, once Hungary had committed its forces in that sector during World War II.

    These aircraft constituted almost the entire Hungarian heavy bomber force. They were ordered after Hungarians returned 33 out of 36 Caproni Ca.310s acquired between May and September 1939. Because of an Italian credit for 300 million lire and the impossibility of acquiring modern German aircraft, Honvéd air force acquired the new, more powerful, Ca.135. The second Ca.135 series was delivered between 1940 and 1941, after an order originally submitted in 1937. It was only confirmed in 1939, after a trial was carried out by Hungarian pilots at Guidonia. Regia Aeronautica had rejected the Ca.135s on account of its technical shortcomings and the aircraft had been taken off production. But in Hungarian service this bomber proved quite satisfactory.

    When Hungary declared war to the Soviet Union, in June 1941, Honvéd air force was almost entirely equipped with Italian aircraft. The bombers had their baptisme of fire on 27 June 1941, the day of Hungarian declaration of war. That day, Sen Lt Istvan Azakonyi, on his Ca.135 from the 4/III Bomber Group, managed to destroy an important bridge with a 'trial drop' of two bombs. The Ca.135s equipped the 3./III Group of 3rd Bomber Wing, based in Debrecen, a bomber unit of the Hungarian air formation commanded by Lt Col Béla Orosz, that had been tasked to provide air support to the Hungarian Rapid Corps, subordinated to German 17th Army.

    These bombers entered in action on 11 August, when six Capronis, commanded by Sen Lt Szakonyi, took off to bomb a 2 km (6,560 ft) bridge across the Bug river of the city of Nikolayev, on the Black sea. One Ca.135 had to turn back due to engine problems, but the other five, escorted by Hungarian Fiat CR.42s and Reggiane Re.2000s, continued eastwards. Szakonyi's Caproni was hit by AA fire and lost his port engine but the squadron commander remained in action. One of his pilots, Capt. Eszenyi, destroyed the bridge, and Szakonyi bombed the Nikolayev train station. On the way back the Capronis were intercepted by Soviet Polikarpov I-16 fighters. The escorting Hungarian fighters shot down five I-16, while the crippled Szakonyi's Ca.135 managed to destroy another three Polikarpovs. After the German 11th Army captured Nikolayev, on 16 August, the commander of Luftflotte 4, Col Gen Lohr, decorated the successful Hungarian crews at Sutyska.

    The Ca.135 on the Eastern front had frequent malfuncions and its insufficient combat load-carrying capability set high demands on the mechanics maintaining it. A 50 per cent operational readiness of the Capronis was to be seen as a great achievvement. The first Hungarian Flying formation on the Eastern Front was withdrawn in September 1941, for recuperation, re-equipment and rest. In 1942 the Hungarians sent the 2nd Air Brigade to provide tactical support and reconnaissance sorties to Hungarian 2nd Army, deployed on the Don. The only bombardment unit, the 4/1 Bomber squadron, was equipped with 17 Ca.135s.

    The 4° squadron operated these aircraft until late 1942, when the survivors, worn out, were used as training aircraft. The Hungarians did not love the Ca.135Bis, but it was all they had, and so they had to make best out of it. One of the squadrons, the I/4, (originally equipped with eight aircraft), soon lost one on landing. It was replaced by another four aircraft. This squadron, up to October 1941, carried out 265 attacks, flew 1,040 sorties, and dropped around 1,450 tonnes (1,600 tons) of bombs, evidently helped by the short range (200–300 km/120-190 mi) that allowed them to use the aircraft's maximum bomb load. Two aircraft were shot down, another two were lost in accidents and 11 crewmen were killed. The daily average, over these four months, was over 8 missions flown and 13 tonnes (14 tons) of bombs dropped.
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Caproni Ca-135.jpg   C135back.jpg  

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    C135p1.jpg  

  4. #4
    Senior Member gekho's Avatar
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    Junkers Ju-86

    Like the contemporary He 111, the Ju 86 was developed as an airliner and bomber, and five prototypes of each were ordered in 1934. The Junkers aircraft flew five months later, four months ahead of its competitor, and had been designed around the new Junkers Jumo 205 diesel engine. Initial flight trials were disappointing, handling in particular being poor, and during subsequent modifications (which may have improved but not eradicated the problems) gun positions were installed. The third prototype was completed as a bomber and flew in January 1935, four months before the second prototype which was built as a commercial aircraft with 10 passenger seats. The fourth prototype, destined to become the first definitive Ju 86B airliner, flew in May 1935, followed three months later by the fifth prototype, the production prototype for the Ju 86A bomber.

    Production at Junker's Dessau factory began on both versions in late 1935 with an initial batch of 13 Ju 86A-0 and seven Ju 86B-0 pre-production aircraft, the first deliveries being made in February 1936. Bombers carried a crew of four and had a defensive armament of three machine-guns. The first export delivery was of a Ju 86B-0 to Swissair in April 1936 for night mail service, and the balance of six of these pre-production aircraft went to Lufthansa. In February 1937 a second aircraft went to Swissair under the export designation Ju 86Z-1, but when re-engined subsequently with BMW 132Dc radials it was redesignated Ju 86Z-2. Lufthansa also received an additional six aircraft in 1937 and these, powered by Jumo 205C diesel engines, had the designation Ju 86C-1.

    Junkers had received some export orders for military models with alternative powerplants. Sweden acquired three Ju 86K-1 aircraft with 875-hp (652-kW) Pratt&Whitney Hornet radial engines, and subsequently 16 more were built under licence by SAAB in Sweden and powered by either Swedish- or Polish-built Bristol Pegasus engines, both variants having the designation Ju 86K-13. Other versions of the Ju 86K were sold to Chile, Hungary and Portugal and these (with Gnome Rhone, Bristol Pegasus III or Swedish-built Pegasus XII engines) had the respective designations J u 86K-9, Ju 86K-4 and Ju 86K-5. Hungary later assembled 66 more aircraft under licence, powered by licence-built Gnome-Rhone radials, and these had the designation Ju 86K-2.

    Meanwhile, modifications to the military models resulted in the Jumo 205C-engined Ju 86D-1, five of which served. with the Legion Condor during the Spanish Civil War, but the diesel engines were not standing up well to combat conditions and the aircraft had proved markedly inferior to the He 111. Disenchantment with the Ju 86D and the very poor serviceability of its engines led the Luftwaffe to make savage and sudden cuts in the Junkers programme and the diesel engines were dropped. Instead, the 81O-hp (604-kW) BMW 132F radial was installed, resulting in the designation Ju 86E-1, this type being followed by the Ju 86E-2 with uprated 865-hp (645-kW) BMW 132Ns. Performance showed little improvement but reliability was greatly improved.

    In 1938, in an attempt to improve pilot visibility, Junkers redesigned the entire nose section, bringing the pilot farther forward and shortening and lowering the nose to provide a fully glazed enclosure of more streamlined contours. The revisions were included on the final 40 production Ju 86E-2s under the designation Ju 86G-1, and manufacture of the Ju 86 ceased in 1938 with a total of about 390 aircraft (excluding licence manufacture). Withdrawal of the type from Luftwaffe front-line service began in late 1938, but at various times during World War II it was found necessary to recall groups from training establishments, for instance in the relief of Stalingrad, but casualties were heavy. In spite of its unsuitability for front-line service, the Ju 86 still had one useful (and unique) role to fill for the Luftwaffe.

    Junkers had been experimenting for some time with a high-altitude version of the Jumo diesel engine, together with pressure cabin design, and in September 1939 submitted proposals for a high-altitude reconnaissance version of the Ju 86. The go-ahead was given, and two Ju 86D airframes were converted, gun positions faired over (since no fighter would be able to reach the aircraft at its operational altitude) and a twoseat pressure cabin was fitted. The prototypes flew in February and March 1940 as Ju 86P aircraft, and reached altitudes of more than 32,810 ft (10000 m). A third prototype with wing span increased by 10 ft 2 in (3.10 m) reached 39,700 ft (12100 m), and the success of the trials earned an order for the conversion of 40 Ju 86Ds to Ju 86Ps. Two models were built, the Ju 86P-1 bomber with a load of2,205 lb (1000 kg) and theJu86P2 reconnaissance aircraft with three cameras. One of the prototypes flew a reconnaissance mission over the UK at 41,010 ft (12,500 m) in the summer of 1940 and was undetected, and this was followed by other production models both over the UK and USSR. While standard Allied fighters were unable to reach them the Ju 86Ps remained unscathed, but in August 1942 a stripped-down Spitfire Mk V caught a Ju 86P at 37,000 ft (11275 m) over Egypt and after a chase to 42,000 ft (12800 m) shot it down.

    In an effort to gain more altitude a higher aspect ratio wing was designed, increasing the span to 104 it 11%in (32.00 m), and uprated Jumo engines with fourblade propellers were installed. Two versions were again built, the Ju 86R-1 reconnaissance aircraft and the Ju 86R-2 bomber, each comprising conversions of the respective Ju 86P types. Only a few aircraft reached service, but during tests an altitude of 47,250 ft (14400 m) was reached. Further development of the Ju 86R-3 with l,500-hp (1119-kW) supercharged Jumo 208s and designed to reach 52,500ft (16000 m), and of a proposed Ju 186, with four Jumo 208s or two Jumo218s (which were coupled Jumo 208s) was abandoned.
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails J86p8.jpg   J86p2.jpg  

    j86-b346.jpg   J86p9.jpg  


  5. #5
    Senior Member gekho's Avatar
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    Regianne 2000 Falco

    The Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierő, Royal Hungarian Air force, was the main operator of the Re.2000. Hungary bought 70 Reggiane Re.2000 Falco Is and then also acquired the licence-production rights for this model to produce a total of 200 aircraft, known as Héja (Falcon) II built between 1940 and 1942. According to other sources,170–203 aircraft were built. The II series was the same aircraft with a different engine and Hungarian machine guns. The Hungarians used the Re.2000 fighters to serve on the Eastern Front. The first aircraft received from Italy were sent to Debrecen to strengthen the fighter defences, as there was danger that the growing crisis over Transylvania could lead to a conflict with Romania. Conflict was avoided and the Reggianes were used in the war against Soviet Union.

    Combat performance against the Soviet Air Force was quite satisfactory. The first Hungarian ace of the war, 2/Lt Imre Pŕnczél, claimed his first air victories while flying the Re.2000, three of them in one sortie, in 1942. Hungarian fighter pilots flew Fiat CR.32s before, and as the Re.2000's flight characteristics were markedly different (being much more prone to stall and spin), it was not popular with all pilots. The Re.2000 was subject to a high accident rate, due to reliability issues and handling difficulties. When the first squadron deployed to the Eastern front, all 24 Re.2000s had suffered accidents (minor and major) within a month after combat deployment. Landing and takeoff accidents were common on the rudimentary Russian airfields and due to the Re.2000 not having a rugged landing gear compared to that of the CR.32 that also flew in the same theatre, this type suffered a higher proportional accident rate. After a steel plate was added behind the cockpit to protect pilots, the shift in the aircraft's center of gravity led to more frequent accidents. In a much publicized accident, István Horthy (the son of the Hungarian regent Miklós Horthy), serving as a fighter pilot with the Hungarian Second Army died on 20 August 1942, flying his Reggiane. He was on his 25th operational sortie with his Re.2000 V-421 from 1/3 Fighter squadron. A pilot flying above Horthy asked him to increase height, he pulled up too rapidly, stalled and crashed to his death.

    While Hungary wanted an additional 50-100 Re.2000s without engine and armament (that could be locally manufactured), although other countries expressed interest including Finland (100 each), Portugal (50), Spain, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (with license production), no Reggianes were exported to any of them. Hungary continued to produce licence-built Hejas: 98 were completed in 1943 and 72 in 1944 although the variant was regarded as no longer suitable for combat against the latest Soviet fighters. The Luftwaffe was reluctant to re-equip the MKHL as German aircraft production was designated for front line use while the danger of a Hungarian-Romanian conflict still existed. Moreover, Adolf Hitler held a bad opinion of Hungarian aviators. In autumn 1942, he had replied to a Hungarian request for fighters:

    "They would not use the single-seaters against the enemy but just for pleasure flights!... What the Hungarians have achieved in the aviation field to date is more than paltry. If I am going to give some aircraft, then rather to the Croats, who have proved they have an offensive spirit. To date, we have experienced only fiascos with the Hungarians."


    Consequently, in April 1944, the Hungarians still deployed four Héja IIs in 1./1 Fighter squadron and four Hejas II in 1/2, all of them based in Szolnok for Home defence duties, along with about 40 Bf 109s and Messerschmitt Me 210s. The last sortie, for the licence-built Reggiane Re.2000, occurred on 2 April 1944. That day, 180 bombers from the USAAF 15th Air Force, escorted by 170 fighters, bombed the Danube Aircraft Works and other targets in Budapest. The Hungarian fighter control centre in the Géllert hill, near Budapest, scrambled one wing of Hejas from 1/1 Fighter squadron, along with 12 Bf 109G-4/G-6S and a couple of Messerschmitt Me 210Cas-1s from the Experimental Air Force Institute (RK1). The Hungarians reported 11 aerial victories, of which six were confirmed, while USAAF pilots claimed 27 MKHL aircraft shot down; later records showed only two Honvéd pilots were killed.[19]
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails R2000x20.jpg   R2000x6.jpg  

    R2000x4.jpg   R2000x21.jpg  

    R2000x26.jpg   re2000hi.jpg  

    R2000x23.jpg  

  6. #6
    Senior Member gekho's Avatar
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    Fiat Cr.42 Falco

    The first foreign customer of the CR.42 was the Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierö (MKHL - Royal Hungary Air Arm), which placed orders for 18 aircraft during the summer of 1938. The Hungarians were aware that the CR.42 was conceptually outdated, but considered the rapid re-equipment of their fighter component vital and the Italian government had expressed its willingness to forgo delivery positions in order to expedite the re-equipment of Hungarian units. Between 16 June and 20 November 1939, the CR.42s arrived in Hungary and 1. vadász ezred (1st Fighter Regiment) began conversion from the Fiat CR.32. First squadron equipped with the fighter was 1/3. ‘Kőr ász’ vadászszázad (‘Heart of Ace’ squadron), which also suffered the first fatal accident when szakaszvezető Béla Simon crashed at Mátyásföld with V.207 on 4 October 1939. In November 1939, Hungary ordered an additional 50 CR.42s from Italy, which arrived between 10 February and 30 June 1940. 1. vadász ezred’s two two-squadron component groups, the 1./I osztály (Fighter Group) at Mátyásföld (later to Kolozsvár-Szamosfalva where it was renumbered to 2/II. osztály) and the 1./II osztály at Mátyásföld, Budapest, had received their full complement of fighters by the late spring of 1940. In 1942, the Hungarians and the Italians bartered a captured Yugoslavian S.79 against two more CR.42s, thus MKHL used a total of 70 CR 42.

    The 26th November 1941 the last biplane fighters was retired from combat service in the Magyar Királyi Légierö when the last ones crossed the Carpathians and set course for their home base at Mátyösfáld. The 1/3. vadászszázad claimed 18 and 1 probable victories during 114 missions and 447 individual combat sorties. They lost two pilots and two aircraft. Hadnagy Pettendi was killed in action and Zászlós Szőnyi was taken POW.

    Source: http://surfcity.kund.dalnet.se/falco_hungary.htm
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails C42p5.jpg   C42p3.jpg  

    C42p8.jpg   1-CR-42-RHAF-Szombathely-Hungary-1944-01.jpg  

    1-CR-42-RHAF-13F-V-209.jpg  
    Last edited by gekho; 03-16-2013 at 08:57 AM.

  7. #7
    Senior Member gekho's Avatar
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    Messerschmitt Me-210 Hornisse

    The Messerschmitt Me 210 was a German heavy fighter and ground-attack aircraft of World War II. The Me 210 was designed to replace the Bf 110 in heavy fighter role; design started before the opening of World War II. The first examples of the Me 210 were ready in 1939, but they proved to have poor flight characteristics. A large-scale operational testing programme throughout 1941 and early 1942 did not cure the aircraft's problems. The design eventually entered limited service in 1943, but was almost immediately replaced by its successor, the Messerschmitt Me 410 Hornisse ("Hornet"). The Me 410 was a further development of the Me 210, renamed so as to avoid the 210's notoriety. The failure of the Me 210's development programme meant that the Luftwaffe was forced to continue fielding the outdated Bf 110, to mounting losses.

    The Luftwaffe started receiving their Hungarian-built planes in April 1943, but the Hungarians didn't get their own until 1944; however, when they did enter service they were more than happy with them. Production ended in March 1944, when the factory switched over to produce the BF 109G. By that time, a total of 267 Me 210C had been built, 108 of them had been given to the Luftwaffe. They operated mostly in Tunisia and Sardinia, but were quickly replaced by the Me 410.
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Me25p.jpg   ç.jpg  

    M210x1.jpg   Me21p.jpg  


  8. #8
    Senior Member gekho's Avatar
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    Focke Wulf Fw-189 Uhu

    The Uhu was first flown in July 1938 and entered service with the Luftwaffe from 1940 as a short-range reconnaissance and army co-operation aircraft. Armament comprised four 7.9mm machine-guns and two or four 50kg bombs. The central crew nacelle, projecting rearwards between the twin tailbooms, was extensively glazed and provided excellent all-round vision for the crew of three. Operated mainly on the Eastern Front, the Uhu remained in production until 1944, by which time nearly 850 aircraft had been completed, including a number of purpose-built five-seat trainers. However, because of the low speed of the aircraft, its use was subsequently restricted to less active duties, such as evacuation of wounded, radio training and communications.
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Fw189affro.jpg   Fw189iffro.jpg  


  9. #9
    Senior Member muggs's Avatar
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    Thanks gekho, great thread.

  10. #10
    World Travelling Doctor? Gnomey's Avatar
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    Nice stuff!


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  11. #11
    Forum Mascot Lucky13's Avatar
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    Great stuff mate!

    Jan "Felicis Tredecim"
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  12. #12
    Senior Member gekho's Avatar
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    Savoia Marchetti SM-75 Marsupiale

    A twenty-four-seat passenger transport powered by three 559kW Alfa-Romeo 126RC.34 radial engines. The S.M.75 prototype flew in November 1937. Production for military and civil use continued until 1943, 90 machines being delivered to the Italian authorities and five exported to Hungary. The latter were finally converted for military use with dorsal and ventral gun turrets. A number of Italian S.M.75s were also militarised.

    Italy exported five SM.75 aircraft to Hungary for service with the Hungarian airline MALERT. After Hungary entered World War II, these aircraft were pressed into service with the Magyar Kirŕlyi Honvéd Légiero (MKHL), Hungarian Air Force. During the short conflict against Yugoslavia, in the afternoon of 12 April 1941, four SM.75s, loaded with paratroopers, took off from Veszprém. Unfortunately, the leading aircraft, code E-101, crashed immediately afterwards. Twenty three Hungarians lost their lives, including 19 paratroopers. It was the heaviest loss in the war against Yugoslavia. On 6 May 1941, the Hungarian Air Force had at its disposal four S.M.75, as paratroop transport.
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Savoia Marchetti SM-75.jpg   S75x1.jpg  

    S75p1.jpg  
    Last edited by gekho; 05-06-2011 at 06:44 AM.

  13. #13
    Senior Member gekho's Avatar
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    Focke Wulf Fw-56/58 Weihe

    The Focke-Wulf Fw 58 Weihe (Kite) was a twin-engined aircraft that was used as a light transport, air-ambulance and navigational trainer by the Luftwaffe. The Fw 58 was designed to the same specification as the less successful Arado Ar 77. It was powered by two 240hp Argus As 10C eight-cylinder inverted V engines, carried in nacelles mounted below the low-mounted wings. The wings were semi-cantilevered, with most of their support structured carried within the wings, but with struts linking the top of the engine nacelles to the fuselage. The high-mounted tail was braced from below. The aircraft has a welded steel-tube fuselage, with a mix of fabric and metal covering. The wings had a metal frame with fabric covering behind the main spar. The main undercarriage wheels retracted into the nacelles.

    The first prototype, the Fw 58 V1, made its maiden flight in the summer of 1935. It was a six-seat transport aircraft with a smooth streamlined nose. The second prototype, Fw 58 V2, was to have been the precursor to the military A-series. It had two open gun positions, one in the nose and one just behind the cabin, each carrying a single MG 15 7.9mm machine gun. The fourth prototype, Fw 58 V3, was the precursor to the first production series, the Fw 58B. The V3 had a glazed nose capable of carrying an MG 15 machine gun, and retained the open dorsal gun position. The Fw 58 B-1 was the first version to be produced for the Luftwaffe. It could carry the same guns as the V3, as well as a number of bombs on racks under the wings. The most numerous version of the aircraft was the Fw 58C. This was a six-seat light transport aircraft with a faired-in nose, and no guns. It was based on the eleventh prototype and served in large numbers with the Luftwaffe and small numbers with Lufthansa. Around 1,350 Fw 58s were produced. Some were exported to Argentina, Bulgaria, China, Hungary, the Netherlands, Romania and Sweden and the type was produced under licence in Brazil.
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Fw56x9.jpg   FW56p1.jpg  

    0064276.jpg   Fw58z1.jpg  


  14. #14
    Senior Member gekho's Avatar
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    Heinkel He-111

    The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter in the early 1930s in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Often described as a "Wolf in sheep's clothing", it masqueraded as a transport aircraft, but its purpose was to provide the Luftwaffe with a fast medium bomber. Perhaps the best-recognised German bomber due to the distinctive, extensively-glazed, bullet-shaped "greenhouse" nose of later versions, the Heinkel was the most numerous and the primary Luftwaffe bomber during the early stages of World War II. It fared well until the Battle of Britain, when its weak defensive armament, relatively low speed, and poor manoeuvrability were exposed. Nevertheless, it proved capable of sustaining heavy damage and remaining airborne. As the war progressed, the He 111 was used in a variety of roles on every front in the European Theatre. It was used as a strategic bomber during the Battle of Britain, a torpedo bomber during the Battle of the Atlantic, and a medium bomber and a transport aircraft on the Western, Eastern, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and North African Fronts.

    Although constantly upgraded, the Heinkel He 111 became obsolete during the latter part of the war. It was to have been replaced by the Luftwaffe's Bomber B project, but the delays and eventual cancellation of the project forced the Luftwaffe to continue using the He 111 until the end of the war. Manufacture ceased in 1944, at which point, piston-engine bomber production was largely halted in favour of fighter aircraft. With the German bomber force defunct, the He 111 was used for transport and logistics.

    The P-9 version was intended for export to the Hungarian Air Force, by the project founder for lack of DB 601E engines. Only a small number were built, and were used in the Luftwaffe as towcraft.
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails H111p1.jpg   hef7x2.jpg  

    Heinkel He-111 007.jpg   Heinkel He-111.jpg  

    Last edited by gekho; 03-16-2013 at 08:52 AM.

  15. #15
    Senior Member Wayne Little's Avatar
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    Some great pics...thanks!




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